Annie celebrates ANZAC Day

Annie and Portia Wheeler commemorated ANZAC day each year during the war.  Their work gave them a deep understanding of the sacrifice of the boys who volunteered and their families, especially mothers, who had no choice but to accept their decision to enlist.

In 1918, there were 1200 Australian men buried in England.  The Australian Natives Association decided to mark ANZAC day visiting each of the graves.  Annie was allotted the Stratford-sub-Castle Cemetery in Salisbury where 22 men were buried.  Martin Rolfe (from the Queensland Agent General office) heard she was going alone and offered to accompany her.

When they arrived at the cemetery they were touched to find women from the village had also visited the graves and left flowers.  Annie and Martin left daffodils and wildflowers on each grave and cards with the inscription, “Australia is proud of her illustrious dead, who have fought a just fight for King and Empire and tenders sincere sympathy to bereaved relatives and friends.”  Annie took down the name and number of each man and wrote to the next-of-kin “to let them know their loved one was not forgotten on our great anniversary”.  She also arranged postcard photographs of the plot to send to the relatives.  There were four boys from central Queensland buried in the cemetery.

Of course, for Annie, while the day was a commemoration and celebration it was also a reminder of the grim reality of the on-going war.  “All day I could not help wondering what our boys in France were doing.”  She hoped “they were celebrating the day by routing the Germans from Villers-Bretonneux” but knew any victory would be bittersweet.  Every battle regardless of the outcome was followed by sorrow when the casualty lists arrived.

While it’s likely they honoured the soldiers in a personal way on Anzac Day in 1917 it is also likely they attended one of the official events organised to remember the storming of ANZAC Cove and the Australians who died in Gallipoli.  These events included, a memorial service held at the War Chest Club, a service and reception at Westminster Catholic Cathedral, a function at the ANZAC Buffet and an evening of entertainment for the Australian and New Zealand troops at the Princess Theatre in Oxford Street.  Andrew Fisher, the Australian High Commissioner, the state Agent Generals and Lady Godley, wife of the Commander-in-Chief of the New Zealand forces were at the War Chest Club with soldiers and guests.  The Bishop, Dr Perrin preached, “the Australians at Gallipoli, though not victorious, were not defeated.  When history was written the most wonderful fact would be that before there was any suggestion of conscription in Australia, Canada or England millions of men volunteered for the Empire.  The blood shed on Gallipoli and elsewhere had made it real instead of a nominal Empire.” Sir John McCall, the Agent-General for Tasmania, told soldiers at the ANZAC Buffet “although our men were making a record in France nothing they had done there exceeded the great deeds of Gallipoli”.

Further Information

Annie’s letters to Mary Trotman have been digitised by the NLA and are available on Trove – http://www.trove.nla.gov.au

Image courtesy of the Community Website of Stratford Subcastle, Salisbury.

 

 

Heavy Losses at Bullecourt

One hundred years ago William Glasgow was in the thick of things at Bullecourt in France.  Early April 1917, Brigadier General Glasgow, commanding the 13th Brigade, was asked to take over from Cam Robertson.  Cam Robertson (James Campbell Robertson), a Queenslander from Toowoomba, was the commander of the 12th Brigade.  His accidental wounding at the end of March necessitated the temporary change of command.

On the April 12th, Glasgow addressed his wife’s Belle’s complaint that “a letterless day was dreary and endless”.  He explained, “I am very busy and find it difficult to find time to write daily.  I took over from Cam Robertson and am forward again”.  Censorship and perhaps a desire to spare her the full horrors his men endured prevented him from revealing more details except to assure her “when one is forward and pushing there are worries” which do “not allow of thoughts other than the work at hand”.

The day before he wrote this letter, the 12th and 4th Brigades of the AIF with the 62nd British Divisions attacked Bullecourt.  The attack was disastrous.  The tanks which were supposed to support the Australians either became stuck in thick mud and were destroyed or broke down.  The Australian infantry pushed on and managed to break the German lines but because no one was sure how far they had advanced, supporting artillery fire was withheld.  The Australians were trapped and some forced back.  1,170 Australians were taken prisoner, more than any captured during a single battle during the war.  An aditional 2,130 men were killed or wounded.

William Glasgow came out of the line at two-thirty in the morning and received three letters from Belle.  As Belle’s letters to William did not survive the war the only clues about what she wrote are in William’s replies.  Because Belle hadn’t heard from William for a few days, couldn’t imagine his life in France and was separated from her daughters and family in Australia she was feeling lonely and insecure.  William wrote, “You are a queer old thing.  You’re hungry for a little bit of love and affection.  Has it not been forthcoming?”  The incongruity of leading so many men to their death or capture, coming off the line and receiving her letters detailing her domestic life, “so glad you are getting a new frock”, is startling.  It’s possible, the normality of these letters and seeing Belle when he was on furlough were essential for him. All his letters during early April express his feelings for her.  On 7th April, “my whole love goes with this, how I wish I was being enclosed with it” and on the 12th, “how I would like to be alone with you.”  He tells her he will send a wire on their anniversary which is a few weeks away and his pleasure at being her husband. It is unlikely his friend Cam Robertson, who had been away from his wife and family in Toowoomba for more than three years received daily letters. Cam was granted two months’ home leave later in the year but was back in the field by the middle of 1918.

Even though the first attack on Bullecourt achieved little and left the Brigade decimated, Glasgow told Belle he was proud of his men. “Any success that comes to my brigade is the men and the battalion officers.  Once men are launched it rests entirely with them and they do the work.   They had a very strenuous time in and struck appalling weather – the worst I have seen in France.”

Further Information

William Glasgow’s letters to his wife Belle are part of the State Library of Queensland collection and are available online – http://www.slq.qld.gov.au

Image courtesy of the Australian War Memorial.

The Americans Arrive

Living in London in 1917 as winter turned to spring was extremely challenging.  Food was expensive and in short supply.  Food prices were more than twice what they had been in July 1914. Added to this was a feeling that the price rise wasn’t just due to shortages but to profiteering.  Wages were stagnant and discontent on the rise.  Strikes became common place and anti-war protests were increasingly violent.  Fuel shortages led to a ban on private motor cars in April and a dwindling of taxis placed more demands on overcrowded public transport.

Spring also saw a resumption of large scale battles in France and Belgium with their inevitable increases in casualties.  Men were reported missing, never to be seen again.  Families prayed they had been captured and were prisoners of war but often the grim reality was they had been pulverised by the large-scale shelling and there was no body, not even a part of a body to bury.  Mistakes were made by the AIF.  Sometimes families were told their son had been killed in action only to discover later he was alive and well.  Belle Glasgow was visiting Annie Wheeler when a soldier from the 49th Battalion called to tell Annie he was alive.  While he was in France he was handed a copy of the Anzac Bulletin and saw his own name among the list of dead.

The absence of bodies and the bureaucratic mix-ups made grieving even more difficult.  Families wanted proof about the fate of their loved one and begged Annie and Portia Wheeler for information about their missing sons, husbands and brothers.  Annie and Portia hounded the Red Cross and used their time at the Anzac Buffet and hospitals to question soldiers in the same battalion or unit.  They investigated every available lead to gather as much information as possible.  Even confirmation of death was better than endless wondering.

Spring did bring one piece of welcome news.  April 6th, 1917, one hundred years ago today, the USA declared war on Germany and the public celebrated filling the streets, wearing little American flags in buttonholes and flying flags from buildings.  They hoped the influx of Americans would mean a swift end to the war and at last they felt there was something to cheer about.  London filled with Americans over the next few months and a huge crowd turned out to see a baseball match at Lord’s Cricket Ground between the Canadians and Americans in July.

The hope was short-lived as spring thawed the fields of France and Belgium and heavy artillery pounded the earth turning everything to mud.  The slaughter escalated.  In 1917 over 76,000 Australians were killed, wounded and missing on the Western Front; twice the number of casualties in France in 1916 and three times that of Gallipoli.