London Attacked

German Gotha bombers attacked London in a deadly daylight raid one hundred years ago on July 7th 1917.   Gotha planes which could fly higher and undetected in daylight had replaced Zeppelins and Londoners were unprepared for the attack.  Witnesses mistakenly assumed the planes were their own until they saw the deadly bombs drop over the East End and London city.  57 people were killed and almost 200 injured.

Annie Wheeler cabled her friend Mary Trotman in Rockhampton because she knew she would be anxious when she heard about the raid.

There were no warnings and the first Annie knew of the raid was the sound of guns in the distance at about ten-thirty in the morning.   When the sounds came nearer and nearer she realised “the enemy airplanes were overhead and thought it time to go down to the basement.”  Annie told Mary Trotman “everyone – even the little children – was quite calm”.  She reassured Mary, “no bombs were dropped in Victoria Street” where she was living.

95 British aircraft were sent up to defend the capital.  Annie realised the guns she had heard were “our own anti-aircraft.”  After a while Annie went up to the roof to see what was happening and counted about “thirty enemy planes” overhead.  “We just got on the roof in time to see the last one disappearing.”  The British planes chased the enemy aircraft over the channel bringing down one plane but losing two of their own.  Three young British airmen died.

Eleanor Bourne, the first Queensland woman doctor working at the Endell Street Military Hospital also watched the raid.  The bombs hit the General Post Office and the roof caught fire.  “The daylight raid was rather exciting and it was hard to believe that the buzzing planes looking like a swarm of flies, might really drop something dangerous; on this occasion the hospital was showered with bits of burnt paper from the nearby General Post Office which got hit.”

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Londoners were angry and scared and demanded better defences and warning systems.  Many directed their anger at the Germans living in London and riots broke out across the city.  3000 people vented in Upper Holloway, 1500 in Tottenham attacking German bakeries and tailors.  Windows were broken, money and goods stolen, police were injured and arrests made.

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Even though press reports were limited, these raids spread fear and caution among Londoners who until now had thought the raids more an entertaining spectacle.  More people headed for the basement rather than the roofs as air raid procedures and better warning systems were developed.

Further Information

Annie Wheeler’s letter to Mary Trotman, published in the Capricornian on the 15th September 1917has been digitised by the NLA and is available online -https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/69801339/6829485

Eleanor Bourne’s papers, (OM81-130 Eleanor Elizabeth Bourne Papers) held in SLQ, have been digitised and are available online – http://www.slq.qld.gov.au

New Scotland Yard Reports of the riots in London on the 7th July 1917 have been digitised by The National Archives UK are are available online – http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pathways/firstworldwar/spotlights/p_riots.htm

The photograph of bomb damaged buildings in St Pancras Road – (c) IWM HO76 – is part of the Imperial War Museum Collection.

Where are they?

While the Battle of Messines was a success its ferocity left more than ten thousand Australian soldiers dead, wounded, missing or suffering severe shell shock.  Soldiers who made it back found their battalions decimated.  Sometimes they had seen a mate fall but that was the last they’d seen of him.  Desperate for news, unable to find out any information in France or Belgium, they cabled or wrote to Annie Wheeler telling her their mate was missing and asked her to to investigate.

In June 1917 Annie’s list of missing was growing.  Some boys, Lonergan and Lupton hadn’t been seen since the Battle of Bullecourt and others Palfrey, Boyd and Dodd since Messines.  Annie gave their names to Mary Chomley who headed the Red Cross Prisoner of War Department who also made enquiries.  In early June Annie got a letter from Lonergan, letting her know he was a prisoner of war and then a few days later Alexander Lupton’s letter arrived.  He was also a prisoner of war.

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A little later Annie located Dodd and Boyd in POW camps but unfortunately she discovered Palfrey had been killed in action.  Arthur Nixen wrote to let her know his brother had been wounded but his brother-in-law Bert had been killed.  Annie was able to tell Arthur, Bert wasn’t dead but was a prisoner of war in Germany.  As soon as Annie knew where her boys were she sent parcels of food and other comforts.  The Red Cross sent parcels for a small fee and families cabled Annie money to pay on their behalf.

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There were often mix ups in the cables but if the money didn’t arrive Annie would pay the Red Cross herself.  William Humphries’s money had been cabled under Humphrey’s but luckily it was the Commonwealth Bank and Annie was able to sort it out.  Annie was scrupulous with her accounting and acknowledged every donation.  In June ten pounds was cabled to Mrs H. J. Wheeler.  The bank manager realised it was meant for Annie but it took Annie months to work out the money was from the Rockhampton Bowling Club.  The Central Queensland community appreciated Annie’s work and with donations increasing Mary Trotman urged Annie to hire some help to “keep pace with the letters”.  In late June Annie took her advice and put an ad in the British Australiasian for a “shorthand writer and typist, Queenslander preferred”.

Annie often ran into boys from home.  Returning to the station after visiting Lieutenant Watts in Harfield Hospital she came across Angus Leitch lying on a stretcher on the platform waiting to be taken to the same hospital.  Going down in a crowded lift in Paddington station two soldiers turned around and exclaimed “Mrs Wheeler”.  It was Private Godsell.  He recognised Annie’s voice.  He had sold Annie boots when he worked at Davis and McDongall’s in Rockhampton.

Sadly one hundred years ago on the 26th June she received news her friend George Hartley had been killed.  George had been a frequent visitor and she had only seen him in May on his way back to France after being wounded at Bullecourt.  His cousin Claude Murphy had cabled her.  George had died in a clearing station and Claude had gone back to the village behind the casualty clearing station to see if he could find the place where George had passed away.  He was unsuccessful at the time but told Annie he would find out the particulars of George’s death.  Annie’s heart went out to Claude who had lost a brother and two cousins within a month of each other.

Further Information

Annie’s letters to Mary Trotman printed in The Capricornian have been digitised by the NLA and are available online.

Soldier’s war records have been digitised by the NAA and are available online

 

 

 

Chockfull of confidence

One hundred years ago John Fryer wrote to his mother from France. The Fryers were old friends of Annie Wheeler nee Laurie.  Annie started school in Springsure and knew Rosina Richards and Charles Fryer long before any of them were married.  Rosina and Charles met while working at the pastoral station, Orion Downs and still lived in Springsure with their seven children.  Four of the six boys (William, Charles, Henry and John) enlisted and by 1917 were in various parts of England and Europe.  Their only daughter Elizabeth remained at home with the two youngest boys Richard and Walter.

March 1917, John apologised to his mother, “you must really excuse me for not writing sooner but I have been kept well on the move since leaving Oxford.”  John had been promoted and was in Oxford learning how to use explosives and artillery for trench warfare in his new role as lieutenant.  John’s notebooks from his time at Oxford, part of the John Denis Fryer Collection in the University of Queensland Fryer Library, are a fascinating insight into how a man studying modern languages could lead men in battle.  Not only do they detail the equipment and methods used in the first world war they also show John’s prowess as a student; the notes are detailed, illustrated and clear.

Before returning to France from Oxford, John dropped in on Annie Wheeler in London.  He told his sister Lizzie “she was jolly glad to see some of us Rockhampton boys.  By jove she is a great little woman.  I think the name ‘mother of Anzacs’ suits her to a T.”  Annie was very pleased to see John telling her friend Mary Trotman of his visit and her pride in his commission.  But there was a downside to promotion which was why some men refused; John couldn’t re-join the 49th battalion and was transferred to the 52nd.  This meant leaving men he had fought alongside and two of his brothers Charles and William who were both with the 49th.  Henry was with the 47th.  John reassured his mother they were all still part of the same brigade and he saw a good deal of Henry and Charles which no doubt gave her some comfort. He told her, “Charlie is not too bad, but a little drawn about the face.  He is quite cheery though and chockfull of confidence – as we all are – in our ability to beat Fritz.”

But by the time Rosina read these words, Charlie was dead.  He was killed in action on the 5th April 1917, less than three weeks after John wrote this letter to their mother.

John, William and Henry survived the war and returned to Australia but in 1923 John died of TB, a result of being gassed during the war. John had been an active member of the University Dramatic society who established a memorial collection of works in Australian literature in his name.  This collection became the Fryer Library.

Further Information

John Fryer’s letters to his mother are part of the John Denis Fryer Collection in the University of Queensland Fryer Library.

Annie Wheeler’s letters to Mary Trotman were published by the Capricornian and have been digitised by the NLA and are available on Trove.

Springsure is in central Queensland 335 Kilometres west of Rockhampton.

Annie delivers bad news

January 1917 Annie Wheeler received a cablegram from Rockhampton.  Murray Hartley’s family had heard he had been wounded and were desperate for news.  Annie wondered if there had been a mix-up.  In his last letter, a few days before Christmas, Murray told her he had bronchitis and expected to be in hospital for a couple of weeks.   Annie immediately rang AIF HQ.

Murray’s full name was John William Murray Hartley but everyone called him Murray.  His mother, Sarah Hartley, was a widow and in January 1917, two of her boys were fighting in France; Murray, 24 and George, 28.  Murray was the keener soldier.  He had enlisted more than a year before his older brother, was promoted to Sergeant in March 1916 and then promoted again to Lieutenant in August.  He wrote to Annie on 20th December from hospital which is how she knew he had bronchitis.

The speed of communication one-hundred-years ago is hard to imagine in today’s world of smart phones, social media and emails.  Landlines were not common in England or Australia; only two out of every hundred homes in England had a telephone in 1917 and mail went by ships, then by train or coach.  It could take days, weeks or months to find out something bad had happened to your son.  Daily lists of sick, wounded and dead soldiers were sent from the front to AIF HQ in London who would then pass the information on to the next-of-kin.  The AIF only sent cablegrams or telegrams if a soldier had died, was missing-in-action or “his complaint was likely to develop seriously or dangerously”.  If the complaint was of a “slight nature” notification would appear “in hospital lists which come to hand later by mail.”

Annie recognised the importance of reliable, speedy communication.  She made sure everyone had her contact details and encouraged them to write to her regularly.  She hassled AIF HQ, the Red Cross and hospitals to give her information about her boys.  She developed a wide network of contacts and used them to find out and pass on information. Annie sent regular cablegrams to her able deputy Mary Trotman in Rockhampton full of information about the conditions of her boys, information she knew would take too long to filter back to their families

When Annie contacted AIF HQ she was was told Murray had re-joined his unit from hospital but had been wounded on the 7th January 1917.  There were no details of what had happened to him and she was unable to find out what hospital he was in.  She waited two days and then rang AIF HQ again only to hear Murray had died of his wounds on the 9th January at the 36th Casualty Clearing Station in France.  He died just before midnight from high explosive wounds to both his legs.  Annie immediately cabled his family and wrote to his brother George in case he hadn’t heard.  When she saw Leslie Henderson, who was in the same company, some days later, he told her Murray had been badly wounded.  His lower legs had been blown off.  Writing to her friend Mary Trotman on the 25th January 1917, exactly one hundred years ago today, she told her she “was grieved to have to send you the sad news about Lieutenant Murray Hartley.”

Not only did Annie deliver a great deal of bad news to families in Central Queensland she was also asked to deliver sad news to the soldiers.  In the same letter of the 25th January she tells Mary Trotman “I had a letter also from Corporal D. Roberts, who was well when he wrote on the 11th of January.  His battalion was resting.  He had received the “Capricornians” from me, but had had no mail from home lately, so I fear he was not prepared for the sad news I was asked to convey to him about his father.”

Annie sorts out the money.

January 1917 – Annie Wheeler needed to lend money to soldiers on leave from France because the money their mothers had cabled hadn’t arrived and by the time they received their pay they would be back in France.  While Annie didn’t mind lending money to her boys, money was tight and she refused to be the victim of bureaucratic incompetence.

The soldiers needed money on leave, in hospital, recovering from wounds or illness, even as prisoners of war.  While privates were paid six shillings a day, they only received five with one shilling paid on discharge or death.  If the soldier was married, two shillings a day were deducted for his dependents.  According to the Reserve Bank’s Pre-Decimal Inflation Calculator, six shillings in 1917 equates to around thirty dollars today.  If this doesn’t seem very much, it wasn’t, the amount was slightly below the basic wage, but more than the British or New Zealand soldiers received.   Additionally, a soldier’s pay was docked if he was found guilty of even a small misdemeanour such as drunkenness, returning late from leave, disobeying an officer, going AWOL or contracting VD.

When Rockhampton mother, Clara Hutton’s twenty-year-old son Falconer needed money after he was wounded (a bullet ricocheted off his rifle onto his face, forcing fragments of his cheek bone and eye socket into his eye) she had no idea what to do, so wrote to the AIF who told her the safest method of transmitting money was through the Commonwealth Bank. “This institution has full information as to the addressing of cables.”

The Commonwealth Bank, only a couple of years old when war broke out played a crucial role in making sure soldiers received money from Australia. The bank established agencies aboard naval ships and opened branches in Australia and abroad.  They also formed relationships with may overseas agents so soldiers could cash Australian notes and coins at a pre-negotiated rate.  At branches in London and training camps in the UK, staff helped soldiers transfer and receive money as quickly as possible with all charges borne by the bank.  With the help of the Red Cross the bank was able to ensure POWs had access to funds to purchase food and comforts – see my previous post for more information about the conditions for POWs.

The problem Annie Wheeler faced in 1917 was the same problem we face today if we need information about a bank account that is not our own.  Soldiers wrote to Annie from France asking her to cable their parents for money so it would be there when they had leave. Mothers wrote to Annie telling her they had cabled money but sometimes when the soldier was on leave the money hadn’t arrived.  Annie tried to sort it out but bank staff refused to give Annie any information about the accounts.  Frustrated, Annie approached Mr Elliot at the Queensland Agent-General’s office to find a solution.  Elliot introduced Annie to the Commonwealth Bank manager, Mr Campion who “promised anything in his power to help”.  He suggested Annie mark her letters to him “personal” and “he would see himself that I received the information I required.”  Annie was delighted and told him “his kindness would be much appreciated by the mothers of Central Queensland.”

Further Reading

More information about the Commonwealth Bank during the first world war – http://museum.rba.gov.au/exhibitions/from-bank-to-battlefield/challenges-of-war/

Mrs Clara Hutton’s letter to the AIF is on her son’s file and can be accessed via the NAA website – naa.gov.au.

Annie’s letter, 3 March 1917, published by “The Capricornian” is available via Trove – trove.nla.gov.au

 

December 1916

One hundred years ago, on the 30th November 1916, Annie Wheeler wrote to Miss M.S. Trotman (Mary Stewart) from her boarding house in Lancaster Gate, London.  Annie and Mary had both worked for Doctor Voss in Rockhampton; Annie, a nurse and Mary, Doctor Voss’s secretary.  “Mothering” her boys required money and Rockhampton based Mary was Annie’s financial lynchpin, setting up and managing bank accounts and money transfers, raising funds and co-ordinating fund raising efforts.  Mary was also the primary contact person for Annie and Portia and the boys’ families.  Rather than write to every family about their sons, bothers and husbands,  Annie wrote detailed letters to Mary who ensured the letters were published in the local newspapers, “The Capricornian” and “Morning Bulletin”.

Annie’s letter of the 30th November (a digitised copy is available on Trove) began by expressing her gratitude, “I really do not know how to express my gratitude to all the kind friends who helped Miss Nellie Coar to send me that splendid donation of £86 to spend on my boys.” According to the Reserve Bank of Australia Inflation Calculator, this would be equivalent to about $8,376 today.  Nellie Coar raised this money by publishing a book “Just the Link Between”.  The book (a copy is in the SLQ collection) is really a calendar with quotes for each day of 1917 submitted by people who wanted to thank Annie.  Advertisers paid for the cost of the book and all proceeds from sales were sent to Annie.

Annie acknowledged many other donations totalling £143, almost $14,000 today.  With winter upon them Annie used the money to make up parcels to send to the boys. Since her last letter to Mary Trotman Annie had sent off “fifty-three parcels to one of our battalions, each containing a warm under vest (with long sleeves), a muffler and a pair of knitted socks”.  There was also “playing cards, cribbage boards and race games”.

Another Queenslander, Belle Glasgow, wife of then Brigadier-General William Glasgow was living at the same boarding house at Lancaster Gate as Annie and Portia at the end of November 1916.  Belle had left her two daughters in Gympie and was living in London to be closer to her husband.  The Glasgow letters are part of the SLQ collection.